Clean and quality water is water which is colorless, odorless and tasteless. in order for water to be regarded as consumable it must consist of these characteristics and be free from water borne diseases and bacteria such as Ecoli, cholera e.t.c. Water consisting of such toxins is unsafe for cooking, drinking or other domestic appliances.
People at the rural area are the ones who are exposed to polluted water because in most of the times they source their water directly from the rivers and dams.
In South Africa We are experiencing a high risk of fresh water threat following pollution and destructions at catchment areas as major contributory factors caused by mining, industries, accidental water pollutions and also the increase of population.


  • Urbanization-movement of people from rural areas to the cities/towns-causing amongst others inadequate sewage collection and treatment
  • Deforestation- clearing land for agriculture and urban growth- when soil is stripped of its protective vegetation and becoming prone to soil erosion.
  • Damming or rivers- water flowing out of dams: reduced suspended material as a large amount settles to the bottom of the dam, is depleted of nutrients; and is also more senile
  • Industries- producing wastes that can affect pH of water color, taste, amount of nutrients, minerals and salts
  • Mining- Increasing amount of minerals, salts, pH, and murkiness in the water in water


NB: Water pollution can cause: Belharzia, Malaria and Cholera  


People at rural areas with no water purification stations nearby can utilize one of these home water treatment plans:

  • Boiling
  • Adding bleach
  • or Chlor-floc

Chlor-Floc is a substance that makes muddy water clean and safe to drink.  It can be bought from a chemist and is available as a powder or as tablets.
Step 1: To use Chlor-Floc mix one teaspoon of powder with 20 litres of water and stir for a few minutes, or follow the instructions on the pack carefully.
Step 2: The dirt will soon settle to the bottom of the container.  The clean water should be filtered through a cloth.  The dirt will be left on the cloth.
Step 3: Be sure to keep the clean water covered.
(Reference: Umgeni Water